From Dr. Dimitris J. Panagopoulos, University of Athens:
I have attached three newest articles [Abstracts below] showing that:
1) GSM signals can induce cell death for intensities down to 10 microW/cm2, with 6 min exposure for few days.
2) There is a Window of maximum bioactivity of GSM signals at 20-30 cm from a cell phone or at 20-30 m from a base station antenna. The importance of this finding is that at 20-30 m from a base station antenna there are usually houses or working places and there is where this radiation becomes most bioactive.
3) This maximum bioactivity Window depends upon the Intensity of the radiation and it is around 10 microWatts/cm2
4) The effects in regards to short term exposures are cumulative.
Dr. Dimitris J. Panagopoulos
The effect of exposure duration on the biological activity of mobile telephony radiation
MutationResearch/GeneticToxicologyand EnvironmentalMutagenesis ( In Press )
Dimitris J. Panagopoulos, Lukas H. Margaritis
In the present experiments we studied the effects of different durations of a single (continuous), daily exposure, ranging from 1 min up to 21 min, to the two established systems of digital mobile telephony radiation that are commonly used in Europe, viz. GSM900MHz(Global System for Mobile telecommunications) and DCS 1800 MHz(Digital Cellular System—referred to also as GSM 1800 MHz), on a well-tested biological model, the reproductive capacity of the insect Drosophila melanogaster. The insects were exposed to each type of radiation at an intensity of about 10microW/cm2, corresponding to a distance of 20 or 30 cm from the antenna of a DCS 1800 or a GSM 900 mobile phone handset, respectively. At these distances the bioactivity of mobile telephony radiation was found to be at a maximum due to the existence of a “window” of increased bioactivity around this value, as we have shown recently [1 – 4]. The results show that the reproductive capacity decreases almost linearly with increasing exposure duration to both GSM 900 and DCS 1800 radiation, suggesting that short-term exposures to these radiations have cumulative effects on living organisms. Additionally, our results show again that GSM 900 MHz radiation is slightly more bioactive than DCS 1800 MHz radiation, at the same exposure durations and under equal radiation intensities, as shown in our previous experiments .
The identification of an intensity ‘window’ on the bioeffects of mobile telephony radiation
Int. J. Radiat. Biol., Vol. 86, No. 5, May 2010, pp. 358–366
DIMITRIS J. PANAGOPOULOS & LUKAS H. MARGARITIS, Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, University of Athens, Athens, Greece (Received 10 June 2009; Revised 2 December 2009; Accepted 9 December 2009)
Purpose: The increased bioactivity ‘windows’ of GSM 900 and 1800 MHz radiations, (Global System for Mobile telecommunications) revealed recently by us and published in this issue, manifesting themselves as a maximum decrease in the reproductive capacity of the insect Drosophila melanogaster, were examined to discover whether they depend on the intensity of radiation-fields. Methods: In each experiment, one group of insects were exposed to the GSM 900 or 1800 radiation at 30 or 20 cm distances, respectively, from the antenna of a mobile phone, where the bioactivity ‘window’ appears for each type of radiation and another group was exposed at 8 or 5 cm, respectively, behind a metal grid, shielding both microwave radiation and the extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields for both types of radiation in a way that radiation and field intensities were roughly equal between the two groups. Then the effect on reproductive capacity was compared between groups for each type of radiation.
Results: The decrease in the reproductive capacity did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions: The bioactivity window seems to be due to the intensity of radiation-field (10 microW/cm 2, 0.6–0.7 V/m) at 30 or 20 cm from the GSM 900 or 1800 mobile phone antenna, respectively. Keywords: GSM, DCS, distances, intensity, window effects, intensity windows
Bioeffects of mobile telephony radiation in relation to its intensity or distance from the antenna
DIMITRIS J. PANAGOPOULOS, EVANGELIA D. CHAVDOULA, & LUKAS H. MARGARITIS , Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, University of Athens, Athens, Greece (Received 10 June 2009; Revised 2 December 2009; Accepted 9 December 2009)
Purpose: To examine the bioactivity of GSM 900 and 1800 (Global System for Mobile Telecommunications) radiations, in relation to the distance from the antenna or to the radiation-field intensities.
Materials and methods: Drosophila melanogaster adult insects were exposed to the radiation of a GSM 900/1800 mobile phone antenna at different distances ranging from 0 to 100 cm, and the effect on their reproductive capacity and cell death induction in the gonads by the use of TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay, was studied.
Results: These radiations/fields decreased the reproductive capacity by cell death induction, at all the different distances tested. The effect diminished with the distance/decreasing intensities. An increased bioactivity ‘window’ was revealed at distances of 20–30 cm from the mobile phone antenna, (radiation intensity around 10 microW/cm 2) where the effect became highest, in relation to smaller or longer distances. The effect diminished considerably for distances longer than 40–50 cm and became not evident for distances longer than 1 m or radiation intensities smaller than 1 microW/cm 2. Conclusions: GSM bioactivity is highest for intensities down to less than 10 microW/cm 2 and still evident until 1 microW/cm2 exhibiting ‘window’ effects. Keywords: GSM, DCS, distances, intensity, cell death, electromagnetic fields, reproduction, bioactivity windows