Two items on this posting:
1) Translated paper by Santini, et al on electromagnetic fields and epilepsy.
2) UK newspaper article about increased seizures in 12 year old girl after a Tetra mast installed near her school.
1) Electromagnetic field and Epilepsy
Richard GAUTIER, Louis GOUGEON, Roger SANTINI
www.csif-cem.org le 04/06/2003
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder of which the crises are the result of electric sudden excessive disposals, generally brief, in a group of cerebral cells (neurones). These electric disposals can take place in different parties of the brain. The demonstrations clinics of the crises are therefore variable and depend on location and function of the cerebral touched cells. Epilepsy is often but not always the result of an other cerebral disease. In the cases where we cannot identify the origin the theory the most widely accepted at the present time is than it is the result of an imbalance between chemical substances in the brain, in particular the chemical messengers known under the name of neurotransmitters.
Until 5% habitants of the globe will have maybe a crisis in their life.
Epilepsy can have physical and psychological consequences engrave, of which the dead subite, traumatisms or disturbances of the mood.
One knows that there exist the factors releasing with certain patients, for example certain effects of scintillement (music libraries, television, etc.), the hyperpnÃ©e, the hyperhydratation, the sleep lack, stress it emotional or physical. It is important to note that these factors are not the causes of epilepsy, but that they have an influence on the moment where produce themselves the crises.
Electromagnetic fields (EMF) and epilepsy.
In the causes :
It cannot be question in the state of the current scientific knowledge to imply the CEM in the causes of very epilepsy if the question remains unresolved for the cases where of the disruptions of the neurotransmitters are evoked as the can do the CEM (to see for example the chapter on the acetylcholine).
In the triggering of the crises of the studies (5,6) showed since a long time influences it magnetic fields on epilepsy and recent studies specified these data :
Etudes on the animal: Beason and al (1) showed the increase of the excitement rate of neurones aviaires in response to a signal GSM to a SAR of 0,05 w/kg (peak of 0,1 mW/cm2)
Action rediscovered equally by Zhang and coll. (29) with the rat or by Tattersall and coll. (30) or by Sidorenko and coll. (2) that characterized this activity action like epilepsy. Marino and coll (26) showed these modifications of the electric activity with the rabbit.
Action on man:
The studies having showed modifications at the level of the eeg, therefore cerebral electric activity, with the man are very numerous (7 to 25), the minimum level of exposition having showed an effect of 1,9 v/m (7) be widely under the exposition doses generated by the telephones and on the order of the one received by the riverside ones of base station. The effects on attained persons of epilepsy were equally shown (27) as well as the significant increase of the epilepsy risk with company workers of electricity (28).
Action at the level of the electric synapse (Gap junction) and modifications of the intercellular communications (3) explained by certain (4) by an internalisation of the proteines of the synapse and or by modification of the calcium intracellular level. Some authors do equally to intervene the modifications at the level of the neurotransmitters.
If the comprehension of the origin of epilepsy necessitates again researches, the reasons relating to the triggering of the crises or to the favorisation of these are a lot more clear ones and the CEM, that this be in very low frequencies as the one of the electricity or in radiofrequencies such the one of the mobile communication are shown as able to release epilepsy crises.
(1) Robert C Beason , Peter Semm .Responses of neurons to an amplitude modulated microwave stimulus. Neurosci Lett. 2002 Nov 29;333(3):175-8.
(2) Sidorenko AV, Tsariuk VV. The effect of microwaves on the bioelectric brain activity Radiats Biol Radioecol 2002 Sep-Oct;42(5):546-50
(3) Shcheglov VS, Alipov ED, Belyaev IY. Cell-to-cell communication in response of E. coli cells at different phases of growth to low-intensity microwaves. Biochim Biophys Acta 2002 Aug 15;1572(1):101-6
(4) Zeng QL, Chiang H, Hu GL, Mao GG, Fu YT, Lu DQ. ELF magnetic fields induce internalization of gap junction protein connexin 43 in Chinese hamster lung cells. Bioelectromagnetics 2003 Feb;24(2):134-8 (5) Keshavan et coll. convulsive threshold in humans and rats and magnetic field changes : observations during total solar eclipse. Neuroscience Letters. 1981. 22 : 205-208.
(6) Anninos et coll. Magnetic stimulation in the treatment of partial seizures. Int. J. Neurosc. 1991. 60 : 147-171.
(7) Von Klitzing, L. Low-Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Influence EEG Of Man. Phys Med (1995) April/June:77-80
(8) Mann et coll. Effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on human sleep. Journal Neuropsychobiology, 1996;33:41-47
(9) Mann et coll. Effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on the neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrinology 1998 Feb;67(2):139-44
(10) Wagner et coll. Human sleep EEG under the influence of pulsed radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Results from polysomnographies using submaximal high power flux densities. Neuropsychobiology 2000;42(4):207-12
(11) Eulitz et coll. Mobile phones modulate response patterns of human brain activity. Neuroreport 1998 Oct 5;9(14):3229-32
(13) Borberly et coll. Pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field affects human sleep and sleep electroencephalogram. Neurosci Lett 1999 Nov 19;275(3):207-10
(14) Huber et coll. Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG. Neuroreport (2000) 11:3321-3325
(15) Huber et coll. Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobil phones, alter regional blood flow and sleep and waking EEG. J. Sleep Res. (2002) 11,289-295.
(16) Huber et coll. Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in humans: Estimation of SAR distribution in the brain, effects on sleep and heart rate. Bioelectromagnetics 2003 May;24(4):262-76
(17) Krause et coll. Effects of Electromagnetic Field Emitted by Cellular Phones on the EEG During a Memory Task. NeuroReport (2000) 11:761-764
(18) Krause. EMF EFFECTS ON HUMAN COGNITIVE PROCESSES AND THE EEG. BEMS 2002 QuÃ©bec, Canada
(19) Freude et coll. Microwaves Emitted by Cellular Telephones Affect Human Slow Brain Potentials. Eur J Allp Physiol (2000) 81:18-27
(20) Koivisto et coll. The effects of electromagnetic field emitted by GSM phones on working memory. Neuroreport 2000 Jun 5;11(8):1641-3
(21) Lebedeva et coll. Investigation of brain potentials in sleeping humans exposed to the electromagnetic field of mobile phones. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 2001;29(1):125-33
(22) Jech et coll. Electromagnetic Field of Mobile Phones Affects Visual Event Related Potential in Patients with Narcolepsy. Bioelectromagnetics (2001) 22:519-528.
(23) Hinrikus et coll. Modulated Microwave Effects on EEG. EBEA 2001 meeting.
(24) Hinrikus et coll. Comparison of Photic and Microwave Stimulation Effects on EEG. Biological Effects of EMFs meeting (2002) Rhodes, Greece.
(25) Croft et coll. Acute mobile phone operation affects neural function in humans. Clinical Neurophysiology (2002) 113:1623-1632.
(26) Marino et coll. Consistent magnetic-field induced dynamical changes in rabbit brain activity detected by recurrence quantification analysis( small star, filled ). Brain Res 2003 Feb 28;964(2):317-26
(27) Dobson et coll. Changes in paroxysmal Brainwave patterns of epileptics by weak-field magnetic stimulation. Bioelectromagnetics 21:94-99 (2000).
(28) C. Johansen. Exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of central nervous system disease in utility workers. Epidemiology. 2000. 11 : 539-543
(29) Zhang et coll. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields promote neurite varicosity formation and cell excitability in cultured rat chromaffin cells. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol 1997 Nov;118(3):295-9
(30) Tattersall et coll. Effects of low intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on electrical activity in rat hippocampal slices. Brain Research, 2001, 904: 43-53.
2) Epilepsy girl, 12, will learn at home
Sep 27 2005
Daniel Davies, Western Mail
EDUCATION chiefs agreed to teach a 12-year-old girl with epilepsy at home after it was claimed a police radio mast near her school was giving her fits.
The family of Nicola Packard planned to use the courts to force Dyfed-Powys Police to remove one of its controversial Tetra masts.
Her mother, Jayne, said Nicola – who has severe learning difficulties and uses a wheelchair – had seven fits on the day the mast was switched on, compared to an average of one seizure a month.
The mast, at Haverfordwest Police Station, Pembrokeshire, is about 1km from Nicola’s school.
The family moved house in 2000 when a mobile phone mast was built opposite their home and Nicola’s fits deteriorated sharply.
They dropped legal action against Pembrokeshire County Council last week when officials agreed to teach Nicola at home in Hakin, near Milford Haven, where she lives with her mother, sister Natasha, 17, and stepfather John, 47. A teacher or learning support assistant will visit for two to three hours a day.
The police Tetra communication system has provoked angry protests from communities who fear the masts emit dangerous radiation.
Mrs Packard, 34, said, “They have backtracked and now she can have home tuition. But I don’t want Nicola to have home tuition – I want that mast gone so Nicola can go back to school.”
She withdrew her daughter from Portfield Special School when the mast was activated in May. This month she was given a form of diazepam to stop a bout of severe fits when she returned for two days to see if the mast sparked more seizures.
“The day it was turned on Nicola had quite a few fits after she arrived home from school,” Mrs Packard said.
“I put her in school two weeks ago to prove to myself that it was harming her. On the Thursday she had fits going into one another. They were not stopping.
“We didn’t want to use her as a guinea pig, but we needed to know.”
Nicola, who communicates through basic sign language, cannot take medicine for the epilepsy because of powerful side effects.
Mrs Packard claimed another pupil had also been withdrawn from Portfield School complaining of illness since the mast became active, although the school refused to comment on this.
The family has had advice from University Hospital of Wales specialists suggesting a possible link between Nicola’s epileptic fits and the Tetra mast, Mrs Packard said.
Five years ago Nicola was having up to 40 seizures a day, which they believed was due to a nearby mast.
Government research found it unlikely that Tetra could pose a risk to human health.
However Michael Charles, Mrs Packard’s solicitor, claimed the genuine risk to Nicola’s health was clear.
He said, “I don’t consider that in this case there was a need to establish a direct link between the Tetra mast and the individual’s health.
“The state of scientific evidence to date recommends a precautionary approach towards the use of mobile telecommunications equipment.
“It’s difficult to understand how one can be exercising a precautionary approach if you put telecommunications equipment within a stone’s throw of a special needs school.”
But Mr Charles took time to praise the response of Pembrokeshire council.
He said, “The council has been very responsible and I applaud them.”
A Pembrokeshire council spokesman said they would not comment on individual cases, apart from to confirm that Nicola would now receive home tuition.
A spokeswoman for Dyfed-Powys Police said, “We are awaiting the results of the planning appeal by O2 over the siting of the base station which will provide coverage for Haverfordwest from an alternative location.
“The force understands that the planning inspectorate will hear that appeal at the beginning of November.
“Currently, there is no definitive scientific proof that airwave base stations affect people who are susceptible to epilepsy.”